The plan goes off the rails, however, when Hektor kills Patroklos—with the help of the god Apollo and a minor Trojan warrior named Euphorbos. For example, a major hero may encounter a lesser hero from the opposing side, in which case the minor hero is introduced, threats may be exchanged, and then the minor hero is slain.
Fighting then breaks out as both sides try to lay claim to the body and armor. Due to this slight, Achilles refuses to fight and asks his mother, Thetis, to make sure that Zeus causes the Greeks to suffer on the battlefield until Agamemnon comes to realize the harm he has done to Achilles.
When in Book 9 his friends urge him to return, offering him loot and his girl, Briseis, he refuses, stuck in his vengeful pride. Influence on classical Greek warfare[ edit ] While the Homeric poems the Iliad in particular were not necessarily revered scripture of the ancient Greeks, they were most certainly seen as guides that were important to the intellectual understanding of any educated Greek citizen.
The next day the fighting resumes, and the Achaians fight well. Kleos is often given visible representation by the prizes won in battle.
So it was here that the lord of men Agamemnon angered me. The two sides retreat, and the Achaians build a wall around their encampment to protect their position and their ships. Because Patroklos and his army are rested and fresh, they easily drive the weary Trojans back to the city wall.
Achilleus greets his friends warmly, but refuses to make peace with Agamemnon. Achilleus then holds funeral games for Patroklos, giving many great prizes to the victors. His courage fails at the last minute and Achilleus pursues Hektor twice around the city walls.
Defeat seems imminent, because without the ships, the army will be stranded at Troy and almost certainly destroyed.
When Achilleus learns of the death of his friend, he experiences terrible grief and swears revenge. Yet, by the s, Milman Parry — had launched a movement claiming otherwise. As the Trojans attempt to set fire to the Achaian ships, the gods intervene and rescue the Achaians from almost certain destruction.
Agamemnon eventually agrees, but only if he gets to take Briseis, the girlfriend of Achilleus, the greatest warrior of the Achaians. Pride[ edit ] Pride drives the plot of the Iliad. Patroclus is a fine warrior, and his presence on the battlefield helps the Achaeans push the Trojans away from the ships and back to the city walls.
The poem ends with the funeral of Hektor—though we know that soon Achilleus will die and Troy will be captured.
But come, let us ourselves get him away from death, for fear the son of Kronos may be angered if now Achilleus kills this man. Trojan War in popular culture The Iliad was a standard work of great importance already in Classical Greece and remained so throughout the Hellenistic and Byzantine periods.
When he learns that Chryseis is the cause, he reluctantly gives her up but then demands Briseis from Achilles as compensation.Free summary and analysis of the events in Homer's The Iliad that won't make you snore. We promise. Plot Overview. Nine years after the start of the Trojan War, the Greek (“Achaean”) army sacks Chryse, a town allied with Troy.
During the battle, the Achaeans capture a pair of beautiful maidens, Chryseis and Briseis. In The Iliad, both gods and men struggle to bring an end to the ten year Trojan War. Great Greek warrior Achilles kills Hector in battle, crippling.
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From a general summary to chapter summaries to explanations of famous quotes, the SparkNotes The Iliad Study Guide has everything you need to. The Iliad is a great poem, but also one which presents a number of difficulties for the first-time reader.
This page is designed to be a jumping-off point to help you overcome some of the common difficulties readers have with Homer's Iliad, and also to provide tools to enhance and deepen your reading of the poem.
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